Religion & Spirituality

Aldred, Guy A. (1907). The Religion & Economics of Sex Oppression. London: Bakunin Press.

Alexis-Baker, Nekeisha (2006). [WWW] “Embracing God and Rejecting Masters: On Christianity, Anarchism and the State.” The Utopian 5: 75-84.

Aroldi, Cesare Enrico, and Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin (1966). La negazione di Dio e dello Stato in Max Stirner e Michele Bakunin. Ragusa: Editrice ‘La Fiaccola’.

Bakunin, Michael (1970). God and the State. New York: Dover.

Bessière, Gérard (2007). Jésus selon Proudhon: la “messianose” et la naissance du christianisme. Paris: Cerf.

Bonanno, Alfredo Maria, and P.-J. Proudhon (1976). Dio e lo Stato nel pensiero di Proudhon. Ragusa: La Fiaccola.

Castro Alfín, Demetrio (1998). “Anarquismo y protestantismo: Reflexiones sobre un viejo argumento.” Studia historica. Historia contemporánea 16: 197-220. <–Abstract: “Este artículo analiza las conexiones entre anarquismo y protestantismo en la España contemporánea tomando como punto de partida los paralelismos establecidos por Gerald Brenan entre el furor anticlerical del campesinado anarquista andaluz y los agitadores protestantes de los siglos XVI y XVII. El autor discute que en la base de la difusión del anarquismo se encontrará algún ‘sentimiento de traición’ a los humildes cometida por la Iglesia al aliarse con los ricos, pues el anticlericalismo anarquista partía de una concepción que pretendía la inutilidad e incluso la nocividad de la religión misma. También niega que los sentimientos anticlericales del campesinado y las clases populares filoanarquiatas se inspirasen en textos evangélicos, conocidos merced a la difusión de ediciones baratas por las sociedades bíblicas. No obstante, reconoce que la simpatía o el interés por el protestantismo fue una etapa en la evolución personal que llevó al anarquismo a algunos de los primeros partidarios de la A.I.T. en España.”

Clark, John (2005). [WWW] “Anarchism.” Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature. Ed. Bron Taylor. London & New York: Continuum. ??-??.

Cohn, Norman (1990 [1961]). The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages. New York: Oxford University Press.

Faure, Sébastien (194-?). Does God Exist?: Twelve Proofs of the Inexistence of God as Presented in a Lecture. Stelton, N.J.: Kropotkin Library. <–Translation of the famous Dieu n’existe pas.

Fenn, Richard K. (1986). The Spirit of Revolt: Anarchism and the Cult of Authority. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman & Littlefield.

Gibson, Tony (1991). [WWW] “Should We Mock at Religion?” The Raven 7.25: ??-??.

Hobson, Christopher Z. (2000). [WWW] “Anarchism and William Blake’s Idea of Jesus.” The Utopian 1: 43-58.

– – – (2006). [WWW] “Francis Grimké and African American Prophecy.” The Utopian 5: 85-101.

Kornegger, Peggy (1975). “The Spirituality Ripoff.” The Second Wave 4.3: 12-18.

– – – (1980). “Cosmic Anarchism: Lesbians in the Sky with Diamonds.” Sinister Wisdom 12: 3-12.

Lagalisse, Erica Michelle (2011). “Marginalizing Magdalena”: Intersections of Gender and the Secular in Anarchoindigenist Solidarity Activism. Signs 36(3):653-678.

Lumsden, Peter (1994). “Only the Atheist Can Understand Religion.” The Raven: anarchist quarterly 25 7/1 (Spring): 26-28.

Most, Johann Joseph (1902). The Deistic Pestilence. Hull: Free Commune Press. <–One of many translations (in English, French, Italian, Yiddish, Dutch, Esperanto, etc.) of Most’s famous screed, Die Gottespest.

Onfray, Michel (2007). Atheist Manifesto: The Case against Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. Trans. Jeremy Leggatt. New York: Arcade Pub. <–Originally Traité d’athéologie: physique de la métaphysique (Paris: Bernard Grasset, 2005).

Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1858). De la justice dans la révolution et dans l’église; nouveaux principes de philosophie pratique adressés à son éminence Monseigneur Mathieu, cardinal-archevêque de Besançon. Paris: Garnier frères.

– – – (1959). Écrits sur la religion. Paris: Rivière.

Reclus, Élisée and Georges Guyou [a.k.a. Paul Reclus] (1901). [WWW] ”L’Anarchie et l’Église”. Paris: Temps nouveaux.

Tremlett, Paul-François (2004). “On the Formation and Function of the Category ‘Religion’ In Anarchist Writing.” Culture and Religion 5.3: 367-381. <–This would, in fact, make an excellent point of departure for any further investigation in this subject.

Voyenne, Bernard (2004). Proudhon et Dieu: le combat d’un anarchiste, suivi de, Pascal, Proudhon, Péguy. Paris: Cerf.

Walford, George (1991). [WWW] “Through Religion to Anarchism.” The Raven 7.25: ??-??.

Walter, Nicholas (1991). [WWW] “Anarchism and Religion.” The Raven 7.25: ??-??.

Ward, Colin (1996). [WWW] “Anarchism.” Dictionary of Ethics, Theology, and Society. Ed. Paul A. B. Clarke and Andrew Linzey. London: Routledge. ??-??.


Edwards, David (1998). The Compassionate Revolution: Radical Politics and Buddhism. Totnes: Green Books.

Snyder, Gary (1961). “Buddhist Anarchism.” Journal for the Protection of All Beings 1: ??-??. –> Slightly revised version online at [WWW]

Christian Anarchism

Andrews, Dave (1999). Christi-Anarchy: Discovering a Radical Spirituality of Compassion. Oxford: Lion.

– – – (2001). Not Religion, but Love: Practicing a Radical Spirituality of Compassion. Cleveland: Pilgrim.

Christoyannopoulos, Alexandre (2011). Christian Anarchism: A Political Commentary on the Gospel [Abridged edition] Exeter: Imprint Academic. <–[WWW] More info here

– – – (2009). “Christian Anarchism: A Revolutionary Reading of the Bible.” In New Perspectives on Anarchism, edited by Nathan Jun and Shane Wahl, 135-152. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

– – – (2008). “Leo Tolstoy on the State: A Detailed Picture of Tolstoy‘s Denunciation of State Violence and Deception.” Anarchist Studies 16/1: 20-47.

Clairborne, Shane, and Chris Haw (2008). Jesus for President: Politics for Ordinary Radicals. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

Coy, Patrick G. (1988). A Revolution of the Heart: Essays on the Catholic Worker. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Damico, Linda H. (1987). The Anarchist Dimension of Liberation Theology. New York: P. Lang.

Day, Dorothy (1952). The Long Loneliness: The Autobiography of the Legendary Catholic Social Activist. New York: Harper San Francisco.

– – – (2005). Selected Writings: By Little and by Little. Edited by Robert Ellsberg. Maryknoll: Orbis.

Eller, Vernard (1987). Christian Anarchy: Jesus’ Primacy over the Powers. Eugene: Wipf and Stock.

Elliott, Michael C (1990). Freedom, Justice and Christian Counter-Culture. London: SCM.

Ellul, Jacques (1988). Anarchie et christianisme. Lyon: Atelier de création libertaire. [English version (1991): Anarchy and Christianity. Translated by George W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.]

– – – (1998). “Anarchism and Christianity.” In Jesus and Marx: From Gospel to Ideology, translated by Joyce Main Hanks, 153-177. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.

– – – (1967). The Political Illusion. New York: Knopf.

Hennacy, Ammon (1965). The Book of Ammon. Salt Lake City.

Hopton, Terry (2000). “Tolstoy, God and Anarchism.” Anarchist Studies 8: 27-52.

Kugel, Marie and E. Armand (1902). La Fin du Christ légendaire: essai de christianisme libertaire. Paris: Ère nouvelle. <–[[WWW] L’Ère nouvelle (1901-1911) was “one of the rare (perhaps the only) journal of the French Christian anarchist tendency,” edited by Marie Kugel et E. Armand (La Presse anarchiste).

Maurin, Peter (2003). Easy Essays. Washington: Rose Hill.

O’Reilly, Ciaron (1982). “The Anarchist Implications of Christian Discipleship.” Social Alternatives 2/3 (February): 9-12.

Penner, Archie (2000). The New Testament, the Christian, and the State, Mennonite Reprint Series. Hagerstown: James Lowry/Deutsche Buchhandlung.

Segers, Mary C. (1977). Equality and Christian Anarchism: The Political and Social Ideas of the Catholic Worker Movement. Newark, N.J.: [s.n.].

Tolstoy, Leo (1894). The Kingdom of God Is Within You: Christianity Not As a Mystic Religion but As a New Theory of Life. Trans. Constance Black Garnett. London: William Heinemann. <–While Tolstoy never accepted the label “anarchist” per se, this is perhaps the single most important text for Christian anarchists. Note also that many Tolstoy texts can be found on [WWW]

– – – (1990). Government Is Violence: Essays on Anarchism and Pacifism, edited by David Stephens, translated by Vladimir Tchertkoff. London: Phoenix.

– – – (1990). “On Anarchy.” In Government Is Violence: Essays on Anarchism and Pacifism, edited by David Stephens, translated by Vladimir Tchertkoff. London: Phoenix.

– – – (1967). Tolstoy’s Writings on Civil Disobedience and Non-Violence, translated by Aylmer Maude. New York: Bergman.

– – -. What I Believe <My Religion>.

York, Tripp (2009). Living on Hope While Living in Babylon: The Christian Anarchists of the 20th Century. Cambridge: Lutterworth.


Barclay, Harold B. (2003). “Islam, Muslim Societies and Anarchy.” Anarchist Studies 10.2: 105-118. <–Abstract: “This contribution addresses the question of a possible relationship between the idea of anarchy and Muslim society. First, the Kharijite and the Sufi traditions in Islam are briefly considered. Then, the paper turns to various manifestations of tribal organisation in North Africa and Southwest Asia. Finally, there is a brief assessment of the writings of Mu’ammar Qaddafi, dictator of Libya, which appear to have some anarchistic content. While the search for anything remotely resembling anarchist thought or practice in Muslim society might at first sight seem a frivolous venture, it is apparent that anarchistic themes do pervade Muslim societies, although there is no consistent rejection of the notion of domination, and no advocacy of a free society.”

Colson, Daniel (2004). Trois essais de philosophie anarchiste: Islam, histoire, monadologie. Paris: Éditions Léo Scheer.

Crone, Patricia (2000). “Ninth-Century Muslim Anarchists.” Past and Present 167: 3-28. <–On the Mu’tazilites’ view of the State.

Fiscella, Anthony (2009). “Imagining an Islamic Anarchism: A New Field of Study Is Ploughed.” In Religious Anarchism: New Perspectives, edited by Alexandre Christoyannopoulos, 280-317. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Hobson, Christopher Z. (2006). [WWW] “The Muhammad Cartoons.” The Utopian 5: 13-15.

Veneuse, Mohamed Jean (2009). “To Be Condemned to a Clinic: The Birth of the Anarca-Islamic Clinic.” In Religious Anarchism: New Perspectives, edited by Alexandre Christoyannopoulos. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Wilson, Peter Lamborn (1993). Sacred Drift: Essays on the Margins of Islam. San Francisco: City Lights Books.

– – – (1988). Scandal: Essays in Islamic Heresy. Brooklyn, New York: Autonomedia

– – – , and Naṣr Allāh Pūrjavādī [a.k.a. Nasrollah Pourjavady], trans. and eds. (1987). The Drunken Universe: An Anthology of Persian Sufi Poetry. Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press.

Paganism & Earth-based Spirituality

Marshall, Peter (2000) Riding the Wind: A New Philosophy for a New Era London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Plawiuk, Eugene (2005). [WWW] ”The Gnosis of Anarchy: Pagans, Witches, Heretics, and Luciferian Rebels.” <–“Edmonton Anarchist Bookfair Presentation.”

Starhawk (1988) Truth or Dare: Encounters with Power, Authority and Mystery. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Starhawk (2002) Webs of Power: notes from the global uprising. Gabriola Island, Canada: New Society Publishers.

Wilson, Peter Lamborn, Christopher Bamford and Kevin Townley (2007). Green Hermeticism: Alchemy and Ecology. Great Barrington, MA: Lindisfarne Books.


Bertolo, Amedeo and Annalisa, eds. (2001). L’anarchico e l’ebreo: storia di un incontro. Milano: Elèuthera. <–Proceedings of “Anarchists and Jews: Story of an Encounter,” an “International Study Conference” held in Venice, May 5-7, 2000. [WWW] Contents and abstracts available online in English.

Buber, Martin (1996). Paths in Utopia. Trans. R.F.C. Hull. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. <–While refusing the label “anarchist,” Buber draws his self-styled “utopian socialist” conception from Proudhon, Kropotkin, and Landauer above all.

Cohn, Jesse (2005). [WWW] “Messianic Troublemakers: The Past and Present Jewish Anarchism.” Zeek: A Jewish Journal of Thought and Culture.

Ginzberg, A. (1902). Der idisher amol un haynt. Leeds: Free Thought Publishing Association. <–Yiddish. (English: “The Jewish God Jehovah, past and present.”)

Jacobson, Eric (2003). Metaphysics of the Profane: The Political Theology of Walter Benjamin and Gershom Scholem. New York: Columbia University Press. <–Especially good on Scholem’s ties to anarchism.

Jacoby, Russell (2005). Picture Imperfect: Utopian Thought for an Anti-Utopian Age. New York: Columbia University Press. <–Excellent account of the relationships between Gustav Landauer’s messianic politics and the iconoclastic skepticism of his friend Fritz Mauthner.

Landauer, Gustav (1978). For Socialism. Trans. David J. Parent. St. Louis: Telos Press. <–Translation of Landauer’s Aufruf zum Sozialismus. A “religious atheist,” Landauer nonetheless identifies his anarchist socialism with Geist (“spirit”).

– – – (1994). “Gott und der Sozialismus.” Die Botschaft der Titanic: Ausgewählte Essays. Ed. Walter Fähnders and Hansgeorg Schmidt-Bergmann. Edition Kontext. Berlin: Kontext Verlag. 203-228. <–A response to Johannes Nohl’s review of Aufruf zum Sozialismus.

– – – (1997). Dichter, Ketzer, Aussenseiter: Essays und Reden zu Literatur, Philosophie, Judentum. Ed. Hanna Delf. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. <–Includes, among other essays of interest, “Die Legende des Baalschem,” “Judentum und Sozialismus,” “Sozialismus und Judentum,” “Martin Buber,” and “Sind das Ketzergedanken?”

Lévinas, Emmanuel (1968). Humanisme et an-archie. Bruxelles: [s.n.]. <–An English translation appears in his Collected Philosophical Papers (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Nijhoff, 1987).

Simmons, William Paul (2003). An-Archy and Justice: An Introduction to Emmanuel Levinas’s Political Thought. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Verter, Mitchell (2006). [[WWW] “The Anarchism of the Other Person.”


Ames, R. T. (1983). “Is Political Taoism Anarchism?” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 10: 27-48.

Cafard, Max [a.k.a. John Clark] (2003). “The Dao of Capitalism, or, ‘Going With the (Cash-)Flow.'” The (Sur)re(gion)alist Manifesto and Other Writings. Baton Rouge, LA: Exquisite Corpse. 32-39.

– – – (2003). “AnarChapters: Zhuangzi’s Crazy Wisdom & Da(o)Da(o) Spirituality.” The (Sur)re(gion)alist Manifesto and Other Writings. Baton Rouge, LA: Exquisite Corpse. 40-58.

Chuang Tzu (1974). Inner Chapters. New York: Vintage Books.

Clark, John (1986). “Master Lao and the Anarchist Prince.” The Anarchist Moment: Reflections on Culture, Nature, and Power. Montréal: Black Rose Books. ??-??.

– – – (1998). “The Tao of Anarchy.” Fifth Estate 33: 6-21.

– – – (2000). “The Tao of Capitalism.” Fifth Estate 35: 8-9.

– – – (1983). “On Taoism and Politics.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 10: 65-88.

– – – (1983). “Taoismo e Anarchismo.” Volontà 37: 4-28.

Hall, D. L. (1983). “The Metaphysics of Anarchism.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 10: 49-64.

Kortright, Chris (1997). “The Tao and Biocentric Anarchism.” Earth First! Journal 17: 9-??.

Lao Tzu (1997). Tao Te Ching: A Book about the Way and the Power of the Way. Trans. Ursula K. Le Guin. Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications.

Rapp, John A (2009). “Anarchism or Nihilism: The Buddhist-Influenced Thought of Wu Nengzi.” In Religious Anarchism: New Perspectives, edited by Alexandre Christoyannopoulos, 202-225. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

– – – (1998). “Daoism and Anarchism Reconsidered.” Anarchist Studies 6/2: 123-152.

Bey, Hakim (1985). TAZ: The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological Anarchy, Poetic Terrorism. New York, Autonomedia.