Race & Ethnicity


A White Southerner (1896). “The American Negro.” The Rebel 1.4: 33.

  • <–Longa: “The author concludes that ‘The color line Confederate South, the Papacy, and capitalism constitute the hydra-headed monster which the American Negro as well as the white wage slave has to face. This triple alliance of oppression is aided by protestant plutocracy. This formidable union of barbarism, ecclesiasticism, and capitalism will in time surely wreck the Republic.'” Suggests that Black people in the U.S. can emulate Jewish collective self-advancement “along nobler and higher lines of development” by rejecting elections and the Church: “who would be free can be free. Simply ordain your individual emancipation.” Acknowledges the reality of white terrorism “perpetrated daily in America’s Armenia” (the South) against Black people, but blithely promises that “[w]hen the hour of final conflict comes,” they “may find the white wage slave sufficiently educated by events to clasp hands with him for mutual deliverance.”

Alston, Ashanti (2004). ”Black Anarchism”. Cincinnati, OH: Books 4 Prisoners Crew.

  • <– Introduction by Chuck Morse.

Anonymous (1945). “Racisme!” Le Libertaire 7: 4.

Anonymous (1942). “Negro Action Now!” Why 1.6:

  • <–Longa: “The author advocates nonviolent direct action to combat racial discrimination.”

Anonymous (1935). “The Scottsboro Case of Injustice.” MAN! 3.5: ??-??.

Anonymous (1908). “Racephobia and Racemania — Neither Is Attractive.” Fair Play 3: ??-??.

Anonymous (1904). “Is It Race Prejudice or What?” The Demonstrator 43: ??-??

Anonymous (1899). “Various Voices: James Beeson, Hytop, Alabama.” Lucifer 784: ??-??.

Anonymous (1899). “Various Voices: Letter from M.E.W., Montgomery, Alabama.” Lucifer 779: ??-??.

Anonymous (1899). “Various Voices: Letter from M.E.W., Montgomery, Alabama.” Lucifer 772: ??-??.

Ashbaugh, Carolyn (1976). Lucy Parsons: American Revolutionary. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr, 1976.

B.W. (1963). “Equity: Expérience de lutte contre la discrimination raciale à New York.” [WWW] Noir et Rouge 24: 1-13.

Belle, Georges (1962). “Du racisme.” Témoins 29: ??-??.

Berneri, Camillo (1986). Mussolini: “Normalizzatore” e Il delirio razzista. Pistoia: Ed. Archivio Famiglia Berneri.

  • <–“Mussolini: ‘Normalizer’ and The Racist Delirium.” Originally pub. 1927; trans. Spanish, 1935. “Il delirio razzista”; trans. English as “Against the Racist Delirium”.

B[erneri]., G[iovanna]. (1959). “Razzismo con e senza svastica.” Volontà 13.2: 65-70.

– – – (1956). “Razzismo.” Volontà 9.8: 438-442.

Black Rose Anarchist Federation (2016). ”Black Anarchism: A Reader.” n.p.

  • <– Contents:INTRODUCTION




    ANARCHY CAN’T FIGHT ALONE By Kuwasi Balagoon



    WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE By Michael Kimble

    SENZALA OR QUILOMBO By Pedro Ribeiro

    INTERVIEW: Afro-Colombian Anarchist David López Rodríguez By Lisa Manzanilla & Brandon King

    1996: BALLOT OR THE BULLET By Greg Jackson



Boujut, Michel (1962). “On vous parle ou Misery blues.” Témoins 30: ??-??.

C.L.S. (1906). “The Solution of the ‘Negro Problem.'” Liberty 396: 44-47.

  • <–Longa: “C.L.S. expresses solidarity with the blacks of South Carolina boycotting white planters in the aftermath of the lynching of Willie Spain.” This boycotting of white employers who support lynching constitutes, in C.L.S.’s view, “the rational solution of the problem, — that is to say, the Anarchistic one” (47).

Corcuff, Philippe (2015). “Indigènes de la République, pluralité des dominations et convergences des mouvements sociaux: En partant de textes de Houria Bouteldja et de quelques autres.” Grand Angle.

– – – (2015). “Critique des Indigènes de la République.” Oumma.

– – – (2015). “Prégnance de l’essentialisme dans les discours publics autour de l’islam dans la France postcoloniale.” Confluences Méditerranée 95.4: 119-130.

Cornell, Andrew (2012). “‘White Skins, Black Masks’: Marxist and Anti-Racist Roots of Contemporary U.S. Anarchism.” Libertarian Socialism: Politics in Black and Red. Ed. Alex Prichard, Ruth Kinna, Saku Pinta, and Dave Berry. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 167-186.

Creighton, George (a.k.a. Glenn Carrington) (1946). “Problems of Negro Migration.” New Trends 1.7: ??-??.

– – – (1936). “Negro Question in the U.S.: A Review.” Vanguard 3.3: ??-??.

– – – (1936). “Which Way For the Negro?” Vanguard 2.6: 20-22.

Cohen, Mark (1998). Review of Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice by Paul Kivel. Social Anarchism 25: 71-73.

Collins, Michael (2004). “The Likes of Us: A Biography of the White Working Class.” London: Granta, 2004.

Craig, Stephen (1936). “Self-Determination for the Black Belt.” [WWW] ”Vanguard” 3.1: 12-14. <–Longa: “Craig examines the communists’ demand for black self-determination.”

D.D. (1943). “Land of the Free.” [WWW] ”Why” 2.3: 6-7, 9. <–Longa: “D.D. reflects on the history of race hatred in America in the aftermath of the Detroit race riots.”

Dabney, Thos. L. (1926). “The Negro and Radical Movements.” Road to Freedom 2.6: ??-??.

Dandi, Dando (1963). “Razzismo e Umanità.” [WWW] ”L’Adunata dei Refrattati” 42.21: 2-3.

– – – (1962). Bianchi e Negri. Cesina: Edizioni “L’Antistato”.

– – – (1959). “Negri e Bianchi.” [WWW] ”L’Adunata de Refrattari” 38.17: 1-2.

– – – (1959). [WWW] “Negri e diritti civili.” Volontà 12.1: 16-21.

– – – (1958). [WWW] “Interno americano: la minoranza negra.” Volontà 11.12: 693-697.

– – – (1958). [WWW] “Interno americano — Razzismo.” Volontà 11.11: 588-592.

Déjacque, Joseph (1860). [WWW] “Negrophobie.” Le Libertaire 3.22: ??-??. <–(In English: “Negrophobia.” On the persecution of a white man for the crime of “dealing honestly and as a person with a person of color.”)

– – – (1858). “La Nouvelle-Orléans.” Le Libertaire 1.3: ??-??. <–A passionate denunciation of New Orleans as a “city of commerce and slavery” with “morals as dirty as [its] streets”: “In Louisiana, as elsewhere. . . slavery is murder!”

Delhom, Joël (1997). “Ambiguïtés de la question raciale dans les essais de Manuel González Prada.” Les Noirs et le discours identitaire latino-américain. Ed. Victorien Lavou. Perpignan: CRILAUP-Presses Universitaires de Perpignan. 13-39.

Dupuis-Déri, Francis (2002). [WWW] “Le totalitarisme ‘politically correct.’ Mythe ou réalité?” Argument 4.1: ??-??.

– – – (1997). [WWW] “L’Affaire Salman Rushdie: symptôme d’un ‘Clash of Civilizations’?” Études internationales 28.1: 27-45.

– – – and Amandine Gay (2017). [ [WWW] https://ricochet.media/fr/2074/lafrofeminisme-vu-de-france “L’afroféminisme vu de France: Un entretien avec Amandine Gay.”] ricochet.

– – – and Andrea Ritchie (2017). “Les femmes noires face à la police. Entretien avec Andrea Ritchie.” Mouvements 92.4: 11-20.

– – – and Irène Pereira (2017). [WWW] “Les libertaires, l’intersectionnalité, les races, l’islamophobie, etc. Dialogue sur les contextes français et québécois.” Grand Angle. <–Trans. by Jesse Cohn as [WWW] “Anarchists, Intersectionality, Races, Islamophobia, Etc.: A Dialogue on the French and Québecois Contexts.”

Ehrlich, Howard J. (1993). “Los Angeles 1992 — The Lessons Revisited.” Social Anarchism 18: 6-11.

– – – (1985). Review of Sexism, Racism, and Oppression by Arthur Brittan and Mary Maynard. Social Anarchism 10: 52-53.

– – – (1973). The Social Psychology of Prejudice: A Systematic Theoretical Review and Propositional Inventory of the American Social Psychological Study of Prejudice. New York: Wiley.

Ellerby, John (1966). “The White Problem.” [WWW] ”Anarchy” 59: 1-3.

Ervin, Lorenzo Komboa (1994). Anarchism and the Black Revolution, And Other Essays. Philadelphia: Monkeywrench Press. <–Title essay first printed 1979.

– – – (n.d.) [WWW] ”The Progressive Plantation: Racism Inside White Radical Social Change Groups.”

– – – and JoNina Ervin (2014). [blackautonomyfederation.blogspot.com/2014/09/racism-at-north-american-anarchist.html “Racism At The North American Anarchist Black Cross Conference.”] Black Autonomy Federation.

Fau, Guy (1963). [WWW] “Il razzismo di fronte alla scienza.” Volontà 16.12: 725-727.

Ferguson, Kathy (2011). “How Could She Miss Race?” Emma Goldman: Political Thinking in the Streets. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 211-248.

  • <– On the failure of Emma Goldman, and of the anarchist movement, to adequately assess and address anti-black racism in the U.S.

Fernandez, Luis, and Joel Olson (2011). [WWW] “To Live, Love and Work Anywhere You Please.” Contemporary Political Theory 10.3: 412-419.

Globus, Dr. J. (1934). “The Racial Myth and Internationalism.” MAN! 2.8: ??-??.

  • <– Reprinted in MAN!: An Anthology of Anarchist Ideas, Essays, Poetry and Commentaries, ed. Marcus Graham (London: Cienfuegos Press, 1974), 264-267.

Goodman, Paul (1963). [WWW] “Children of Birmingham.” Commentary 36.3: 242-44.

– – – (1963). Letter regarding Norman Podhoretz’s “My Negro Problem and Ours.” Commentary 35.4: 343.

– – – (1963). “The Only Grounds of Solidarity.” Liberation 8.4: 22-23.

– – – (1968). “Reflections on Racism, Spite, Guilt, and Non-Violence.” New York Review of Books 10: 18-23. <–Reprinted in Nature Heals: The Psychological Essays of Paul Goodman, ed. Taylor Stoehr (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1977), 118-133.

– – – (1963). “School Segregation in Manhattan.” Liberation 8.1: 13-15.

– – – (1962). Review of James B. Conant, Slums and Suburbs. Harvard Educational Review 32.1: 112-116.

– – – (1957). Review of Robert Penn Warren, Segregation: The Inner Conflict in the South. Dissent (Spring): 204-208.

Grave, Jean (1899). [WWW] ”Moribund Society and Anarchy”. Trans. Voltairine de Cleyre. San Francisco: Free Society Library. <–See especially [WWW] ch. XV, “There Are No Inferior Races” (102-111). Original French version: [WWW] ”La société mourante et l’anarchie” (Paris: Tresse & Stock, 1893).

Guérin, Daniel (1984). Africains du Nouveau Monde. Paris: Présence africaine.

– – – (1973). De l’Oncle Tom aux Pantheres: le drame des Noirs americains. Paris: Union generale d’editions.

– – – (1968). Le pouvoir noir. Paris: les Amis du S.N.C.C. (Pouvoir noir).

– – – (1963). Décolonisation du Noir américain. Paris: éd. de Minuit.

– – – (1956). Negroes on the March: A Frenchman’s Report on the American Negro Struggle. New York: Weisman.

Hall, Laura (2016). “Indigenist Intersectionality: Decolonizing and Reweaving an Indigenous Eco-Queer Feminism and Anarchism.” Perspectives on Anarchist Theory 29: 81-93.

Harman, Lillian (1899). “The Race Question.” Lucifer 764: ??-??.

  • <– Longa: “Harman notes that “If every white man who had ever outraged a black woman had met the fate of Sam Hose, many of the men who burn Negroes would not be alive today — many of them would have never been born.'”

– – – (1899). “Our Brethren of Darker Hue.” Lucifer 767: ??-??.

  • <– Longa: “Harman promotes Ida Wells-Barnett’s pamphlet “Lynch Law in Georgia.”

– – – (1899). “From My Point of View.” Lucifer 779: ??-??.

Harman, Moses (1899). “Personal and Impersonal.” Lucifer 784: ??-??.

  • <–Longa: “Noting that the ‘Negro question’ has taken up considerable space in Lucifer’s columns over the past few months, Harman reminds his readers that ‘The race question, or color line, is a side issue rather than a principal one in our work.'”

Hillside, Bert (1936). “Nine Negro Boys and White Man’s Justice.” MAN! 4.2: ??-??.

James, C. L. (1899). “‘Washing Out’ the Color Line.” Lucifer 781: ??-??.

Kerr, R. B. (1899). “The Negro Problem.” Lucifer 784: ??-??.

Home, Gerald (2005). Black and Brown: African Americans and the Mexican Revolution, 1910-1920. New York: NYU Press.

  • <–Interesting observations about the links between Mexican and U.S. anarchists and evolving African-American movements.

Iverson, David (1957). [WWW] “Deadlock in Little Rock.” Broadsheet 1: ??-??.

  • <–An Australian anarchist view of the role of the U.S. government in school integration.

Johnson, Kahala, and Kathy E. Ferguson (2018). “Anarchism and Indigeneity.” The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism. Ed. Carl Levy and Matthew S. Adams. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. 697-714.

Keating, Neal (1993). “What Is a Race?” [WWW] ”Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed” 13.3 (37): 47.

Lagalisse, Erica Michelle (2011). “‘Marginalizing Magdalena’: Intersections of Gender and the Secular in Anarchoindigenist Solidarity Activism.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society36.3: 653-678.

Lanham, Frank (1946). “Blood at the Root: Racist Violence Rises.” Why 5.4: ??-??. <–Longa: “Lanham contends that racism is a weapon of class rule and constitutes one of the greatest barriers in the struggle for freedom, and calls for direct action against Jim Crow.”

Lea, Tess (2012). “When Looking for Anarchy, Look to the State: Fantasies of Regulation In Forcing Disorder Within the Australian Indigenous Estate.” Critique of Anthropology. 32.2: 109-124.

MacInnes, Colin (1966). “More Heat Than Light.” Review of Victims of Our Fear, ed. Tina Morris. [WWW] ”Anarchy” 59: 25-26.

Marchiori, Giovanni (1975). [WWW] “Sul razzismo conscio e inconscio.” Volontà 28.6: 441-445.

Marestan, Jean (1934). [WWW] “Lynchage.” Encyclopédie anarchiste. Ed. Sébastien Faure. Paris: Librairie internationale. 1342.

Meltzer, Albert (1966). “To Hell With Liberalism.” [WWW] ”Anarchy” 59: 3-8.

  • <–There are some terribly naive statements in here, as Meltzer reduces British working-class racism to economics.

Molnar, George (1957). [WWW] “Integration Issues.” Broadsheet 1: ??-??.

  • <–An Australian anarchist view of the role of the U.S. government in school integration.

Morton, Jr., James F. (1906). [WWW] ”The Curse of Race Prejudice”. New York: The author.

– – – (1904). “Demonstrative.” The Demonstrator 67: ??-??.

  • <– Longa: “Morton argues that ‘race prejudice, is the enemy of civilization, and inevitably leads to national deterioration. It is traitorous to the spirit of democracy and the prolific parent of every species of crime. Woe to the land that in which it is suffered to prevail.'”

– – – (1903). “Demonstrative.” The Demonstrator 28: ??-??.

  • <– Longa: “Morton states that ‘race prejudice is fostered [by the exploiting class] to divide and enslave the workers’ and that ‘unionists, reformers, and all progressive thinkers owe it to themselves and their cause to fight the accursed thing wherever it shows itself.'”

– – – (1903). “Demonstrative.” The Demonstrator 20: ??-??.

  • <– Longa: “Morton contends that ‘all who cater to race prejudice in any way, or treat the negroes as a race instead of as individuals to be received according to their personal merits, helps to maintain the condition of affairs which breeds lynching and peonage.'”

– – – (1899). “Southern Barbarism.” Lucifer 775: ??-??.

Mott, Carrie (2015). “Notes from the Field: Re-living Tucson-Geographic Fieldwork as an Activist-Academic.” Arizona Anthropologist 24: 33-41.

Mümken, Jürgen (2001). [WWW] “Sozialstaat und Rassismus oder vom Liberalismus zum Staatsrassismus.” Schwarzer Faden 71: ??-?? and 72: ??-??.

Oliva, Carlo (2012). [WWW] “‘Gesti isolati.'” A-Rivista Anarchica 42.368: ??-??.

Olson, Joel (2009). “The Problem with Infoshops and Insurrection: U.S. Anarchism, Movement Building, and the Racial Order.” [WWW] ”Contemporary Anarchist Studies.” Ed. Randall Amster, Abraham DeLeon, Luis A. Fernandez, Anthony J. Nocella, II, and Deric Shannon. New York: Routledge. 51-61.

– – – (2009). “Friends and Enemies, Slaves and Masters: Fanaticism, Wendell Phillips, and the Limits of Democratic Theory.” The Journal of Politics 71.1: 82-95.

  • <– Abstract: “Fanaticism presents one of the most important political problems of our times. Yet contemporary democratic theory has had surprisingly little to say about it because it is overwhelmingly concerned with conflict that takes place within a liberal ethical and political framework. It largely ignores conflict between competing frameworks, which is precisely the terrain on which fanaticism appears. The political thought of the abolitionist fanatic Wendell Phillips deepens democratic theory by showing that fanaticism is an approach to politics that seeks to establish hegemony in a struggle between competing ethico-political frameworks, an approach that can sometimes expand democracy rather than threaten it. The lesson of Phillips is that there can be democratic potential in the fanatical encouragement of intractable conflict.”

– – – (2004). The Abolition of White Democracy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

– – – (2002). “Whiteness and the Participation-Inclusion Dilemma.” Political Theory 30.3 384-409.

– – – (2001). “The Democratic Problem of the White Citizen.” Constellations 8.2: 163-183.

Parsons, Lucy E. (1886). “The Negro. Let Him Leave Politics to the Politicians and Prayers to the Preacher.” The Alarm 3.2: ??-??.

  • <–Longa: “Responding to the massacre of thirteen black people in Carrollton, Mississippi.”

Pellecchia, Umberto (2012). [WWW] “Il dramma della razza, il pretesto della follia.” A-Rivista Anarchica 42.368: ??-??.

Pioli, Giovanni (1960). [WWW] “Il razzismo negli avvenimenti del Sud Africa.” Volontà 13.7: 426-435.

Preece, Harold (1935). “Georgia — A Symbol of Injustice to the Negro.” MAN! 3.9: ??-??

  • <–Longa: “Preece tells the story of Angelo Herndon, leader of hunger marches and a sharecropper organizer, whose effectiveness drew the attention of the authorities, an arrest for “attempting to incite insurrection,” and a sentence of eighteen to twenty years on the chain gang. See Herndon v. State, 174 S.E. 597 (Ga., 1934), Herndon v. State, 176 S.E. 620 (Ga., 1934), Lowry v. Herndon, 186 S.E. 429 (Ga., 1936).” Reprinted in MAN!: An Anthology of Anarchist Ideas, Essays, Poetry and Commentaries, ed. Marcus Graham (London: Cienfuegos Press, 1974), 208-213.

Prudhommeaux, A[ndre]. (1935). “A French Editor’s View of America.” [WWW] ”MAN!” 3.7-8: 3.

Puglielli, Edoardo (2008) [WWW] “Schiavitù e tratta di esseri umani.” A-Rivista Anarchica 38.334: ??-??.

Radcliffe, Charles (1966). “Malcolm, Semper Malcolm.” [WWW] ”Anarchy” 67: 276-283.

Renof, Israël. (1962). [WWW] “Pour une conception libertaire sur le racisme: Aspects historiques et économiques du racisme.” [WWW] ”Noir et Rouge” 22: 35-57.

Robinson, Victor (1907). “The Negro.” Altruria 1.5: ??-??.

  • <–Longa: “Robinson concludes that ‘The negro is hated most by those who have wronged him most. But the fair-minded the world over are writing the Constitution of Social Justice and Equal Rights. Into this liberal system let us incorporate the noble words of the Fugitive Poet: There are no creeds to be outlawed, no colors of skin debarred; Mankind is one in its rights and wrongs, one faith, one hope and one guard.'”

Salerno, Salvatore (2005). “Paterson’s Italian Anarchist Silk Workers and the Politics of Race.” Working USA 8.5: 611-625.

  • <–Abstract: “The article explores how first generation Italian immigrant radicals looked at race as well as their involvement in struggles for national liberation. Italian American anarchist silk workers based in Paterson, New Jersey became part of the Industrial Workers of the World foreign translational network of mixed locals in 1906. In Paterson, the group pioneered multiethnic forms of organizing. Such community-based multiethnic and racial strategies are typically associated with the Congress of Industrial Organization in the 1930s and the English-speaking second generation of industrial workers. In fact, these organizational forms were prevalent with ‘Latin’ first generation immigrants who played important roles as pioneers of the new unionism. This article also challenges the dominant way Italian immigrant radicalism has been portrayed.”

Scalieri, Antonio (1960). [WWW] “Lo Stato più razzista del mondo: il Sudafrica.” Volontà 13.1:6-22.

Schumak (1961). [WWW] “Préjugés ‘racistes.'” [WWW] ”Noir et Rouge” 18: 37-51.

Simon, Théo-Claude (1962). [WWW] “Pour une conception libertaire sur le racisme: Psychosociologie du racisme.” [http://archivesautonomies.org/IMG/pdf/anarchismes/apres-1944/noiretrouge/NR-n22.pdf ”Noir et Rouge” 22: 23-34.

  • <– Reprinted in translation as “Psicologia del razzismo” in Volontà 16.1 (1963): 5-10.

Soboul, Edith (2004). [WWW] “Sur le voile, le féminisme, la laïcité et les lois d’exclusion.” Alternative libertaire 128: 12-13.

Soubeyran, Elie (1934). [WWW] “Races.” Encyclopédie anarchiste. Ed. Sébastien Faure. Paris: Librairie internationale. 2261-2262.

Staid, Andrea, and Marco Aime (2013). [[WWW] http://www.arivista.org/?nr=378&pag=119.htm rivista anarchica “Alle radici del razzismo.” A-Rivista Anarchica43.378: ??-??.

van der Walt, Lucien (2004). “Bakunin’s Heirs In South Africa: Race and Revolutionary Syndicalism From the IWW to the International Socialist League, 1910-21.” Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies 31.1: 67-89.

– – – (2003). “Inter-Racial Workers’ Solidarity in South Africa.” The Journal of African History 44.1: 145-194.

– – – (2004). “Reflections on Race and Anarchism in South Africa, 1904-2004.” Perspectives on Anarchist Theory 8.1: ??-??.

Vida (1944). “Philadelphia: Ignorant and Discontented.” [WWW] ”Why” 3.3: 2.

  • <–Longa: “Vida lambasts the streetcar and subway workers of Philadelphia for striking in protest of the hiring and upgrading of black workers.”

Villard, René (1967). Face au racisme et au néo-nazisme. Toulouse: A.I.T.

Voline [Vsevolod Mikhailovich Eichenbaum] (1934). [WWW] “Antisemitisme.” Encyclopédie anarchiste. Ed. Sébastien Faure. Paris: Librairie internationale. 98-104.

W[illiam]. Y[oung]. (1942). “Union Card for Jim Crow?” [WWW] ”Why” 1.5: 6.

Ward, Philip (1966). “Black Marks in the Classroom.” [WWW] ”Anarchy” 59: 8-12.

  • <–On racism in the British school system.

White, Roger (2004). [WWW] ”Post-Colonial Anarchism: Essays on Race, Repression and Culture in Communities of Color, 1999-2004”. Oakland, CA: Jailbreak Press.

Wieck, David Thoreau (1958). “Report from Little Rock.” Liberation (Oct.): 4-9.

Wong, Jane Mee (2008). [WWW] “Pingshe: Retrieving an Asian American Anarchist Tradition.” Amerasia Journal 34.1 (Spring): 133-152.

Zimmer, Kenyon (2014). “Positively Stateless: Marcus Graham, the Ferrero-Sallitto Case, and Anarchist Challenges to Race and Deportation.” The Rising Tide of Color: Race, State Violence, and Radical Movements Across the Pacific. Ed. Moon-Ho Jung. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 128-158.


Berman, Jessica Schiff (2006). Modernist Fiction, Cosmopolitanism and the Politics of Community. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Biagni, Furio (1999). “El anarquismo en el pueblo judío.” Raíces: revista judía de cultura 38: 17-18.

Crespo Flores, Carlos (2007). “‘Respeto tu cultura, pero no te metas con la mía’: Para una crítica del racismo en Bolivia.” [WWW] ”Revista Libertaria” 1: 53-62.

Déjacque, Joseph (1858). “Conflit à la Nouvelle-Orléans.” Le Libertaire 1.1: ??-??.

  • <–On the rise of vigilantism and “Know-Nothingism.”

Graur, Mina (1997). An Anarchist “Rabbi”: The Life and Teachings of Rudolf Rocker. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

  • <–Rocker, a German Gentile, became an integral part of the Yiddish-speaking anarchist movement in London — a striking feat of cultural self-translation.

Lazare, Bernard (1995). Antisemitism: Its History and Causes. Trans. ??. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

  • <–Often found on antisemitic websites, where it is exhibited as an example of a Jew denouncing Jews as responsible for and meriting their own ill-treatment by Gentiles (by being insular, etc.). This is indeed the tenor of the first part of the book, written during a period when Lazare considered himself to be not an ethnically distinct “Jew” but an “Israelite,” i.e., emphasizing his status as an assimilated French national (he boasted that his family had lived in France since Roman times). The second part, however, reflecting a profound shift in Lazare’s sensibility, reads antisemitism as a symptom of (and substitute for) class struggle, “one of the last, though most long lived, manifestations of that old spirit of reaction and narrow conservatism, which is vainly attempting to arrest the onward movement of the Revolution.”

– – – (1898). Comment on condamne un innocent: l’acte d’accusation contre le capitaine Dreyfus. Paris: P.-V. Stock, 1898.

  • <–See Une erreur judiciaire, below.

– – – (1896). Contre l’antisémitisme: histoire d’une polémique. Paris: P.-V. Stock.

– – – (1897). Une erreur judiciaire; l’affaire Dreyfus. Deuxieme memoire avec des expertises d’ecritures de MM. Crepieux-Jamin [et al.]. Paris: P.-V. Stock. <–Lazare’s pamphlet exposing the railroading of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, opening the Dreyfus Affair that would consume France and give new impetus to the nascent Zionist movement.

– – – (1992). Juifs et antisemites. Ed. Philippe Oriol. Paris: Editions Allia.

Oriol, Philippe (2003). Bernard Lazare. Paris: Stock.

Rocker, Rudolf (1937). Nationalism and Culture. Trans. Ray E. Chase. New York: Covici-Friede.

  • <–An attempt to divorce a positive conception of “culture” from statist and fascist conceptions of the “nation.”

– – – (1923). “Antisemitismus und Judenpogrome.” Der Syndikalist 5.47: ??-??.

Westall, Jeremy (1964). “An Anarchist In Africa.” Anarchy 44: 315-319.

Wilson, Nelly (1978). Bernard-Lazare: Antisemitism and the Problem of Jewish Identity in Late Nineteenth-Century France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Colonialism and national struggles

Anderson, Benedict (2005). Under Three Flags: Anarchism and the Anti-Colonial Imagination. London: Verso.

  • <–Traces links between the Spanish anarchist movement circa 1898 and anticolonial movements in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines.

Balagoon, Kuwasi (1995). “Settlers — The Story of the White Nation.” [WWW] ”Prison News Service” 49: 15.

Baudouin, Axel and Hilary Green (2004). [WWW] “Reclus, A Colonialist?” Cybergeo: Epistémologie, Histoire, Didactique 239.

  • <–Abstract: “The geographer and anarchist Elisée Reclus is considered as one of the foremost anti colonialists of his time. When analyzing his writings, several authors were unable to ignore the fact that even when he criticized colonization methods, Reclus was nevertheless an advocate of colonization. This paper attempts to review the issue by using archive material and publications and by looking once more at Elisée Reclus’s stance in the second half of the 19th century, together with other critics of colonial events from other political backgrounds. In spite of his criticism and humanism, it is clearly documented that throughout his life, Reclus was a dedicated partisan of colonization, even if his view was a ‘democratic’ and somewhat idealized version.
    • “Reclus’s position appears logical when related to commonly held western beliefs, shared by the radical left socialists and anarchists, that the ‘civilized world’ had a mission to fulfill in the rest of the world. The colonial issue can be seen as a major component of the on-going globalization, already at work for many centuries.”

Boulouque, Sylvain (2003). Les anarchistes français face aux guerres coloniales: 1945-1962. Lyon: Atelier de création libertaire.

– – – (1997). “Les Anarchistes et les soulèvements coloniaux.” L’homme et la société 123-124: ??-??.

– – – (??). “Les Anarchistes, le sionisme et la naissance de l’État d’Israël.”

  • <–English translation in Social Anarchism ??.

– – – (1994). “Saïl Mohammed, un anarchiste algérien en France.” Migrance 3: ??-??.

Boussinot, Ch. (1934). “Nation.” Encyclopedie anarchiste. Ed. Sébastien Faure. Paris: Librairie internationale. 1762-1764.

– – – (1934). “Protectorat (et colonialisation).” Encyclopedie anarchiste. Ed. Sébastien Faure. Paris: Librairie internationale. 2219-2224.

Casanovas, Joan (1998). Bread, or Bullets!: Urban Labor and Spanish Colonialism in Cuba, 1850-1898. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Ciccariello-Maher, George (2011). “An Anarchism That Is Not Anarchism: Notes toward a Critique of Anarchist Imperialism.” How Not to Be Governed: Readings and Interpretations from a Critical Anarchist Left. Ed. Jimmy Casas Klausen and James Martel. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. 19-46.

Daniel, Jean and Jean-Paul Samson (1963). [WWW] “Sur l’Algérie.” Témoins 33: ??-??.

Dolgoff, Sam (1981). Third World Nationalism and the State. Regina, Sask., Canada: Regina ACF.

Engel-Di Mauro, Salvatore (n.d.). [WWW] “Fighting for Socialism on Great Turtle Island — The Struggle Against Settler Colonialism.” Old and New Project.

Flury, Lazaro (1941). “Malones blancos: Para una historia antiindigena.” [WWW] ”Hombre de América” 2.9: 19.

– – – (1940). “Como puede solucionarse el problema del indio.” [WWW] ”Hombre de América” 1.6: 30.

Freedom Press (1960). The Tragedy of Africa: Selected articles from the anarchist journal “Freedom”, v. 10. London: Freedom Press.

– – – (1954). Colonialism on Trial: Selected articles from the anarchist journal “Freedom”. London: Freedom Press.

Goldman, Maurice (1962). “Anarchism and the African.” Anarchy 16: 179-182.

  • <–Argues that the Israeli kibbutz might form a better model for a future African society than the Western metropolis.

González Prada, Manuel (2002). “Our Indians.” Free Pages and Hard Times: Anarchist Musings. Trans. David Sobrevilla. New York: Oxford University Press. 181-194.

  • <–Unfinished essay, dated 1904.

Grave, Jean (1912). La Colonisation. Paris: Temps nouveaux.

Grave, Jean, ed. (1903). Patriotisme, colonisation. Avec une préf. d’Elisée Reclus. Paris: Temps nouveaux.

Guérin, Daniel (1965). L’Algérie caporalisee? Suite de “l’Algérie qui se cherche.”Paris: C.E.S.

– – – (1956). L’Algérie n’a jamais été la France. Paris: L’auteur.

  • <– Guérin’s address to a Jan. 27 meeting in Paris of the Comité d’action des intellectuels contre la poursuite de la guerre en Afrique du Nord.

– – – (1964). L’Algérie qui se cherche. Paris: Presence Africaine.

– – – (1956). Les Antilles décolonisées. Paris: Presence Africaine.

  • <–with an introduction by the poet Aimé Césaire.

– – – (1975). Les Assassins de Ben Barka: dix ans d’enquete. Paris: G. Authier.

  • <–Revised, updated ed. issued in 1982 under the title Ben Barka, ses assassins: seize ans d’enquete(Paris: Plon).

– – – (1954). Au service des colonisés, 1930-1953. Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit.

– – – (1973). Ci-git le colonialisme; Algérie, Inde, Indochine, Madagascar, Maroc, Palestine, Polyneisie, Tunisie. Temoignage militant. Paris: Mouton.

– – – (1968). Cuba-Paris. Paris: L’auteur.

– – – (1963). Decolonisation du noir americain. Paris: Éditions de Minuit.

– – – (1961). The West Indies and Their Future. London: D. Dobson.

– – – (1979). Quand l’Algérie s’insurgeait, 1954-1962: un anticolonialiste temoigne. Claix: Pensée sauvage.

Halbrook, Stephen P. (1972). “Anarchism and Revolution in Black Africa.” The Journal of Contemporary Revolutions 4.1: ??-??.

Hart, Kathleen (2002). “Oral Culture and AntiColonialism in Louise Michel’s Memoires (1886) and Legendes et chants de gestes canaques (1885).” Nineteenth Century French Studies 30.1-2: 107-120.

Hebditch, Simon (1970). “Mozambique: The Achilles Heel.” Anarchy 112: 177-181.

Hodges, Paul (1970). “Liberating Guiné.” Anarchy 112: 192-196.

Jannaway, Richard (1970). “Zimbabwe (Rhodesia).” Anarchy112: 169-177.

Joyeux, Maurice (1974). Les Anarchistes et la Guerre en Palestine. Paris: Éditions La Rue.

Kastner, Jens (2007). “Land und Freiheit: Indigenität als kulturelle Form von Selbst- und Fremdbestimmung.” iz3w 303: 3-6.

Lapeyre, A. (1934). “Indigène.” Encyclopédie anarchiste. Ed. Sébastien Faure. Paris: Librairie internationale. 980.

– – – (1934). “Nationalisme.” Encyclopédie anarchiste. Ed. Sébastien Faure. Paris: Librairie internationale. 1765-1766.

Lazare, Bernard (1990). Le fumier de Job. Strasbourg: Circé; Arles: Diffusion, Harmonia Mundi.

  • <–Includes an essay by Hannah Arendt, “Herzl et Lazare.” First edition published 1928. Trans. in English as Job’s Dungheap : Essays on Jewish Nationalism and Social Revolution (New York, Schocken Books, 1948).

– – – (1992). Juifs et antisemites. Ed. Philippe Oriol. Paris: Editions Allia.

– – – (1898). Le Nationalisme juif. Paris: Stock.

– – – , and Charles Péguy (1948). Job’s Dungheap; Essays on Jewish Nationalism and Social Revolution. Trans. Harry Lorin Binsse. New York: Schocken Books.

  • <–Essays by Bernard Lazare, with a “portrait” of the author by his friend, Charles Péguy.

Leighten, Patricia (1990). “The White Peril and l’Art Nègre: Picasso, Primitivism, and Anticolonialism.” The Art Bulletin 72.4: 609-630.

  • <–Fascinating analysis of the ways in which anticolonialism figured not only in Picasso’s paintings, but also in the graphic art produced by a whole circle of committed anarchist artists in fin-de-siècle Paris. Reprinted in Race-ing Art History, ed. Kymberly Pinder (New York: Routledge, 2002).

Loréal, Louis (1934). “Impérialisme.” Encyclopédie anarchiste. Ed. Sébastien Faure. Paris: Librairie internationale. 962-964.

Louzon, Robert (1998). Cent ans de capitalisme en Algérie, 1830-1930: histoire de la conquête coloniale. La Bussière: Acratie.

Marchant, Douglas (1970). “Angola.” Anarchy 112: 181-186.

– – – “Southern Africa.” Anarchy 112: 161-169.

Martin, Marie [a.k.a. Marianne Enckell] (1966). [WWW] “Frantz Fanon: La décolonisation dans la violence.” Anarchisme & non-violence 4: ??-??.

Mbah, Sam, and I.E. Igariwey (2001). African Anarchism: The History of a Movement. Tucson, AZ: See Sharp Press.

Mohamed, Saïl, and Sylvain Boulouque (1994). Appels aux travailleurs algériens. Antony: Fédération anarchiste, Groupe Fresnes-Antony.

Montero Díaz, Santiago (1931). Los separatismos. Valencia: Cuadernos de Cultura.

Mühsam, Erich (1929). “Der Kampf in Palästina.” Fanal, Anarchistische Monatszeitschrift 3.12: 287.

Perlman, Fredy (1985). “The Continuing Appeal of Nationalism.” Fifth Estate 19.4 (319): 9-17.

  • <– See Kuwasi Balagoon’s response (published posthumously, 1995).

Porter, David. (2011). Eyes to the South: French Anarchists and Algeria. Oakland, CA: AK Press.

Retté, Adolphe (1896). [WWW] ”Promenades Subversives”. Paris: Bibliothèque Artistique et Littéraire.

  • <–A collection of fragments which bears witness, among other things, to the ways in which anticolonialism figured in anarchist rhetoric in the 1890s, as Retté relativizes “civilization” and “savagery.”

Riera, José (1941). “Indios en Amerindia.” Hombre de América 2.8: 3.

Rocker, Rudolf (1980). “Der Nationalismus — eine Gefahrenquelle!” Aufsatzsammlung Band 2, 1949-1953. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Freie Gesellschaft. 60-??.

  • <– (English: “Nationalism — A Source of Danger!”) Originally in Die freie Gesellschaft 3.?? (1952), pp. ??-??. Argues that nascent Arab nationalism should be seen as an “artificial” phenomenon, the product of “the foreign policy of rival European powers,” rather than as a popular movement; sees the East as developing, under Western pressures, into a “powder keg” comparable to the Balkans prior to WWI.

– – – (1919). “Das nationale Einheitsphantom.” Der Syndikalist 1.24: ??-??.

  • <– (English: “The Phantom of National Unity.”)

Rupp, Marie-Joëlle (2007). Serge Michel : un libertaire dans la décolonisation. Paris: Ibis.

Semela, Selby et al. (1979). ”Reflections on the Black Consciousness Movement and the South African Revolution”. Berkeley: ??.

Sommermeyer, Pierre, and Mfika (2001). “Un Africain face à l’anarchisme, l’anarchisme face à un Africain.” Réfractions 7: ??-??.

Soubeyran, Elie (1934). “Nation.” Encyclopedie anarchiste. Ed. Sébastien Faure. Paris: Librairie internationale. 1764-1765.

Spence, Martin (1978). National Liberation and State Power: An Anarchist Critique of the MPLA in Angola. Newcastle upon Tyne: Black Jake Collective.

Spielmann, Victor (1922). Colonisation et question indigène en Algérie: 1re partie, critique du rapport Vallet sur la colonisation de 1830 à 1921; 2e partie, commentaires sur le rapport Mercier Vallet. Alger: Impr. du prolétariat.

– – – (1934). Le droit à la cité algérienne. Alger: Éditions du Trait-d’union.

– – – (1938). L’Émir Khaled, son action politique et sociale en Algérie de 1920 à 1923. Alger: Trait d’union.

– – – (1930). En Algérie: le centenaire au point de vue indigène. Paris: Groupe de propagande par la brochure.

– – – (1930). Les événements de Palestine: vus par un Nord-Africain. Orleans: Imprimerie Coopérative “La Laborieuse.”

– – – (1935). Les évènements de Constantine et le problème indigène algérien. Alger: Éditions du Trait-d’Union.

– – – (1930). L’Expropriation des Ouled-Dieb par M. Barris du Penher, vice-président du conseil supérieur de l’Algérie. Alger: Trait d’union.

– – – (1928). Les Grands domaines nord-africains: comment et pourquoi on colonise. Alger: Trait d’union.

– – – (1923). La Question indigène en Algérie, II: critiques et commentaires de l’étude du problème de l’entente et de la coopération des races. Alger: Impr. du prolétariat.

– – – (1924). La Réforme de la magistrature musulmane. Alger: V. Spielmann.

– – – (1931). La tribu des Hachem: expropriation de 50.000 hectares de terre, ou, un apect de la propriété indigène. Paris: Bidault.

– – – (1922). Une Page d’histoire algérienne et la question indigène en 1922. Alger: Impr. du prolétariat.

Van der Walt, Lucien (2002). “Pour une Histoire de l’Anti-impérialisme Anarchiste: dans cette lutte, seuls les ouvriers et les paysans iront jusqu’ au bout.” Réfractions 8: ??-??.

– – – (2004). “‘Sifuna Zonke!’ (‘Nous voulons tout!’): une histoire de syndicalisme révolutionnaire en Afrique du Sud.” Afrique 21.3: ??-??.

– – – , and Michael Schmidt (2007). Black Flame: The Revolutionary Class Politics of Anarchism and Syndicalism. Volume 1 of Counter Power: New Perspectives on Global Anarchism and Syndicalism. Edinburgh: AK Press.

  • <–Publisher’s blurb: “Black Flame is the first of two volumes that reexamine anarchism’s democratic class politics, its vision of a decentralized planned economy, and its impact on popular struggles in five continents over the last 150 years. From the nineteenth century to today’s anticapitalist movements, it traces anarchism’s lineage and contemporary relevance. It outlines anarchism’s insights into questions of race, gender, class, and imperialism, significantly reframing the work of previous historians on the subject, and critiquing Marxist approaches to those same questions.”

– – – (2008). Global Fire: 150 Fighting Years of International Anarchism and Syndicalism. Volume 2 of Counter Power: New Perspectives on Global Anarchism and Syndicalism. Edinburgh: AK Press.

  • <–Publisher’s blurb: “This is the second of two volumes reexamining the history of anarchism in both theory and practice. Focusing on anarchism’s global impact —- on five continents over 150 years —- this is the most complete and detailed scholarly book on the topic.”

Vigné d’Octon, Paul [a.k.a. Paul Vigné] (1890). Au pays des fétiches. Paris: A. Lemerre.

– – – (1934). “Colonie, Colonisation.” Encyclopédie anarchiste. Ed. Sébastien Faure. Paris: Librairie internationale. 366.

– – – (1911). La Sueur du burnous: les crimes coloniaux de la IIIe République. Paris: Guerre sociale.

Westall, Jeremy (1966). “Background to the Rhodesian Situation.” Anarchy 62: 117-119.

– – – (1966). “Torture in South Africa.” Anarchy 64: 190-192.

– – – (1966). “The White Problem in Rhodesia.” Anarchy 59: 12-22.

Wolfin, Adrian (1970). “South West Africa.” Anarchy 112: 187-191.

Yee, Jennifer (2002). “Malaria and the Femme Fatale: Sex and Death in French Colonial Africa.” Literature and Medicine 21.2: 201-215.

  • <–Abstract: “Paul-Étienne Vigné (1859-1943), a doctor with the French colonial army and then a politician, is remembered as a very early anti-colonialist. During his lifetime he was also known as a novelist writing under the pseudonym Vigné d’Octon. His novels from the 1880s and 1890s reveal a fantasized, intensely sexual Africa where hapless French soldiers perish of malarial fever caught not from a mosquito-borne parasite but from contact with African women. Yet the deaths of these young men are not seen as the result of a contagious sexual disease but as a direct consequence of their having overstepped the natural boundaries between the races. Thus a fundamentally racialist view, according to which humanity was divided into incompatible strands whose meeting could only endanger the individuals involved, was the theoretical basis of Vigné d’Octon’s novels. It was also – paradoxically – the foundation of his anti-colonialist politics.”

Special Issues

(2014) Affinities (Special issue: “Antiracist Anarchism: A Critical Engagement with Anarchist and Antiracist Thought”)__

  • Burkowicz, Jakub. “Camping at the Crossroads: Introductory Essay to a Special Issue on Antiracism and Anarchism.”Evren, Sureyyya. “Black Flag White Masks: Anti-Racism and Anarchist Historiography.”

    Franks, Benjamin. “Anti-Fascism and the Ethics of Prefiguration.”

    Burkowicz, Jakub. “In Defense of Counterposed Strategic Orientations: Anarchism and Antiracism.”

    Gary Lewis, Adam. “Reaffirming Our Anti-Racist and Feminist Commitments: A Review of Towards Collective Liberation.”

    Partridge, Kevin. “‘We Need to Talk’: A Review of Undoing Border Imperialism.”

(2011) Affinities (Special issue: “Working Across Difference for Post-Imperial Futures: Intersections Between Anarchism, Indigenism and Feminism,” ed. Glen Coulthard, Jacqueline Lasky, Adam Lewis, and Vanessa Watts)__

  • J.F. Day, Richard. “Journal Editor’s Introduction.”Lasky, Jackie. “Indigenism, Anarchism, Feminism: An Emerging Framework for Exploring Post-Imperial Futures.”

    Soguk, Nevzat. “Indigenous Transversality in Global Politics.”

    Smith, Andrea. “Against the Law: Indigenous Feminism and the Nation-State.”

    Khasnabish, Alex. “Anarch@-Zapatismo: Anti-Capitalism, Anti-Power, and the Insurgent Imagination.”

    Ferguson, Kathy. “Becoming Anarchism, Feminism, Indigeneity.”

    Adams, Jason. “‘Only a Stranger at Home’: Urban Indigeneity and the Ontopolitics of International Relations.”

    Goodyear-Kaopua, Noelani. “Kuleana Lahui: Collective Responsibility for Hawaiian Nationhood in Activists’ Praxis.”